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Global Education Monitoring Report 2022: Gender Report; Deepening the Debate on Those Still Left Behind
Place of publication | Year of publication | Collation: 
Paris | 2022 | 70 p.
ISBN 978-92-3-100524-4
Corporate author: 
Global Education Monitoring Report Team; UNESCO
© UNESCO 2022

The 2022 Gender Report presents fresh insights on progress towards gender parity in education with respect to access, attainment and learning. It showcases the results of new models that provide coherent estimates, combining multiple sources of information, on out-of-school and completion rates. It also reviews the results of learning assessments released over the past 18 months, which present an almost global picture of the gender gap in reading, mathematics and science achievement in lower and upper primary and lower secondary grades. They provide a baseline against which to assess the impact of COVID-19 on inequality when post-pandemic data start being released next year.

A companion to the 2021/2 GEM Report, it emphasizes the role of non-state actors in influencing gender inequality in and through education. Non-state actors have filled in provision gaps left by the public education system. The 2022 Gender Report presents evidence on gender gaps in the share of students enrolled in private institutions by sex and what drives these gaps in the various regions. It also provides case studies on the privatization of childcare in high-income countries, the impact of non-state faith-based schools in Asia on gender norms and the role of women’s universities around the world.

Some non-state actors have pushed the gender equality agenda forward, while others have undermined progress in order to maintain the status quo. Some have been at the front line for girls’ education in emergencies. Some have lobbied against comprehensive sexuality education. Some champion inclusion of marginalized girls, while others maintain discriminatory gender norms. Depending on the context, it is important not to make assumptions but to look carefully at the data and work together to eliminate all forces that prevent anyone on the basis of gender from fulfilling their potential through education.


Resource Type: 
Research papers / journal articles
Human rights
Globalisation and social justice / International understanding
Diversity / cultural literacy / inclusive
Level of education: 
Primary education
Secondary education