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Addressing Hate Speech on Social Media: Contemporary Challenges; Discussion Paper 01
Place of publication | Year of publication | Collation: 
Paris | 2021 | 10 p.
Corporate author: 
UNESCO; Oxford Internet Institute; EU
© UNESCO 2021

This paper is part of a collection of discussion papers, commissioned and produced by UNESCO and the United Nations Office of the Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide (OSAPG). The papers are a direct contribution to the United Nations Strategy and Plan of Action and are published in the context of the Multistakeholder Forum and Ministerial Conference on Addressing Hate Speech through Education in September and October 2021. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the pertinence of the United Nations Strategy and Plan of Action, generating a wave of hate speech across the world –further exacerbating intolerance and discrimination towards particular groups and destabilizing societies and political systems. The discussion papers seek to unpack key issues related to this global challenge and propose possible responses and recommendations.


Resource Type: 
Programme reports and evaluations
Civic / Citizenship / Democracy
Media and Information Literacy
Preventing violent extremism
Level of education: 


Disinformation; Hate speech; Social media; Violence; COVID-19