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Research on Digital Competence of EU Citizens: A Comparative Analysis Based on the Dig Comp1.0, 2.0 and 2.1 (International and Comparative Education; No. 6)
Place of publication | Year of publication | Collation: 
Beijing | 2020 | p. 26-34
ISSN 1003-7667
Zheng Xudong; Fan Xiaoyu
Corporate author: 
Beijing Normal University
Asia and the Pacific
Europe and North America
© 郑旭东, 范小雨 2020

The explosive development of digital technology has revolutionized the competences of social citizens. In 2006, EU proposed digital competence, based on it, EU established A Framework for Developing and Understanding Digital Competence in Europe (Dig Comp 1.0). After releasing two revisions of Dig Comp 1.0, the Digital Competence Framework for Citizens (Dig Comp 2.1) was officially released in 2017. Compared with the former versions, Dig Comp 2.1 expanded digital competences areas, revised the competences names, no longer described the specific competences from KSA (knowledge, skill and attitude) perspective, and the proficiency of the competences were divided into more detailed 8 proficiency level. The Dig Comp 2.1 contained the following values: a. the transformation of the concept of digital citizenship education; b. paying attention to the competences of complex problem solving and innovation; c. looking forward to the future development of intelligent society; d. supporting the development of lifelong learning and developing qualified digital citizens. Dig Comp 2.1 has enlightenment for building a learning society in China, and that of improving the digital competences of Chinese citizens.


Resource Type: 
Journal articles
Civic / Citizenship / Democracy
Media and Information Literacy
Level of education: 
Higher education
Lifelong learning
Non-formal education


Digital competence; Digital citizenship; Learning society; European Union