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Shadow education in the Middle East: private supplementary tutoring and its policy implications
Place of publication | Year of publication | Collation: 
United Arab State | 2023 | 99 p.
Bray, Mark, Hajar, Anas
Corporate author: 
Arab States

An increasing number of students around the world are receiving private lessons to supplement their school education. In much academic literature, this is called shadow education; Because the content of private lessons closely mimics the content of school education, as its content changes with the change in the curriculum in schools. Private lessons can take many forms. They can be offered one-on-one, in small groups, in large classes, or online. Some private lessons are provided by the Ministry’s teachers in order to obtain additional income, and some commercial institutions also provide these lessons. As for the category
The third group of private lesson providers includes university students, retirees, and seasonal workers.
While much research and policy has focused on the shadow education system in East Asia and some other regions of the world, there has been less interest in the topic in the Middle East. However, the topic deserves greater focus because of its far-reaching implications for prevailing social structures and education systems. This study begins with the global picture before comparing patterns within and between 12 Arabic-speaking countries in the Middle East.

Resource Type: 
Curriculum, teaching-learning materials and guides
Human rights
Sustainable development / sustainability
Level of education: 
Lifelong learning
التعليم الخاص
التعليم المدرسي
الفجوة التعليمية