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Toward one world or many? A comparative analysis of OECD and UNESCO global education policy documents
Place of publication | Year of publication | Collation: 
London | 2019 | 68-86 p.
Vaccari, Victoria; Gardinier, Meg P.
ⓒInternational Journal of Development Education and Global Learning


Education policymaking has gone global. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development aims to galvanize efforts to promote sustainable development, decrease global inequalities, and realize universal quality education. Supporting these efforts, two leading international organizations, UNESCO and the OECD, have set out normative frameworks for their vision of global education. This paper examines the policy discourses of these organizations in light of SDG 4–Education. Specifically, through a comparative analysis of selected terms and underlying concepts in key policy documents, the paper distinguishes between UNESCO's notion of global citizenship and the OECD's framework for global competence. Ultimately, the authors discuss whether the organizations' agendas are aimed at a common global vision, or, alternatively, towards two distinct and divergent conceptualizations of an imagined future.



Resource Type: 
Journal articles
International understanding / Globalisation / International education / Interdependency
Sustainable development / Sustainability / Environmental
Level of education: 
Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)
Primary education
Secondary education
Higher education
Lifelong learning
Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET)
Non-formal education


UNESCO; OECD; global citizenship; global competence; SDG 4–Education