The book examines the status, trends, and issues of human rights education, including HIV/AIDS prevention education in the Russian Federation. It spans the period from the early 1990s to December 2008, analyzing both positive preconditions for the spread of human rights and freedoms knowledge in Russia and obstacles encountered in the process. A special focus is on laws, regulations and standards applicable to higher education. The book describes the activities of the primary social institutions engaged in HRE: comprehensive schools and universities, human rights commissioners, NGOs. It shows examples of international humanitarian law teaching; offers an evaluation of HRE literature for Russian universities; offers a concept of Science and Discipline of Human Rights. The book also examines the condition of HIV/AIDS prevention education within the context of human rights observance. The authors’ conclusions and judgments are supported with a special opinion poll.