The past decade has seen mixed progress towards Education for All (EFA) in Latin America and the Caribbean. More children are participating in pre-school education, many countries have achieved universal primary education and more students are moving from primary to secondary education. Gender parity has been achieved at the primary level in the majority of countries and adult literacy rates are improving. The region invests a relatively high share of national income in education and external aid to basic education has increased in recent years. However, challenges remain. The Caribbean has seen a decline by nearly one-tenth in primary enrolment ratios and 2.9 million children were not enrolled in school in the region as a whole in 2008. Some 36 million adults are still illiterate and levels of learning achievement are low in many countries. The 2011 EFA Global Monitoring Report puts the spotlight on armed conflict and one of its most damaging yet least reported consequences: its impact on education. Conflict-affected states have some of the world’s worst indicators for education. The Report documents the scale of this hidden crisis in education, looks at its underlying causes and explores the links between armed conflict and education. It also presents recommendations to address identified failures that contribute to the hidden crisis. It calls on governments to demonstrate greater resolve in combating the culture of impunity surrounding attacks on schoolchildren and schools, sets out an agenda for fixing the international aid architecture and identifies strategies for strengthening the role of education in peacebuilding.