Pursuant to the Charter of the United Nations and the Constitution of UNESCO, calling for peace between peoples and respect for cultural diversity, several National Commissions for UNESCO have taken the initiative to create the conditions for a Euro-Arab dialogue in the field of education. The French and Moroccan National Commissions, in particular, have decided to launch studies to highlight stereotypes, misunderstandings and subliminal bias about Arab countries in European textbooks and about European countries in textbooks in the Arab world. First, these studies were conducted by researchers focusing on their own countries' textbooks in order to analyse how the history of the countries on "the other side of the Mediterranean" was represented. Second, a common methodology was developed to allow comoparative approaches favourable to Euro-Arab dialogue. This was to address any mutual bias or misrepresentations that may exist between the two regions and to work togehter to find ways of preventing and combating them. The originality of the approach was to conduct a critical analysis of textbooks published in each country and then underetake a comparative study to be used as the basis for common recommendations. Participants in this project initiated by the National Commissions defined three main objectives: 1. To strengthen dialogue, laying the foundations for learning to live together, based on mutual respect. 2. To help National Commissions for UNESCO, experts, institutions and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to find ways to work together in areas of research of common interest. 3. To contribute to UNESCO's efforts to develop a stretegy relating to textbooks, to improve the quality of education for peace, human rights, mutual understanding and intercultural dialogue.