This paper uses educational anthropolog to examine and analyse ethnic identity and national identity of ethnic Axi Yi high school students. It finds that they have both very strong ethnic and national identities, and there is a moderate positive correlation between the two identities. This shows that the two identities can coexist harmoniously for ethnic minorities. This paper also finds that the symbiosis relationship between students’ ethnic identity and national identity is built on common foundations, such as common territorial awareness, common consanguinity，common historical memory，common heroic characters and common national symbols. This paper argues that schools are the important place where those common foundations are built.