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Inclusion in Early Childhood Care and Education in High-Income Countries
Place of publication | Year of publication | Collation: 
Paris | 2021 | 43 p.
Corporate author: 
Global Education Monitoring Report Team; UNESCO; Deloitte Access Economics
© UNESCO 2021

This report reviews the international research and policy literature concerning approaches to inclusion in early childhood care and education (ECCE) in different high-income jurisdictions globally. Each chapter highlights examples of policies and practices which can foster inclusion in ECCE across the themes set out in the Global Education Monitoring (GEM) Report in 2020.

As a critical period for children’s intellectual, emotional, social, physical and moral development, supporting inclusion in ECCE is of particular importance for supporting lifelong learning and equitable opportunities for all children. A number of key messages emerging from this review that are instructive to designing policies to promote inclusion in ECCE are summarised below.

  • Inclusion in ECCE is fostered through complementary universal and targeted approaches to most aspects of ECCE governance, financing, policy and service delivery.
  • The implementation of ECCE laws and policies is key to supporting inclusion.
  • As the central actors delivering ECCE services, collaboration within the ECCE workforce is crucial to supporting a community of practice which leads and shares inclusion, while avoiding risks of specialisation.
  • Finally, while many existing ECCE policies, resources and tools are grounded in a deficits-based approach to understanding need, inclusion may be better supported through an approach which focusses on child learning needs and strengths.


Resource Type: 
Research papers / journal articles
Diversity / cultural literacy / inclusive
Sustainable development / sustainability
Level of education: 
Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)