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Non-state Actors in Tertiary Education: A Shared Vision for Quality and Affordability? (Policy Paper 47)
Place of publication | Year of publication | Collation: 
Paris | 2022 | 15 p.
Corporate author: 


Non-state provision accounts for more than one third of tertiary education students worldwide, a considerably higher share than in primary or secondary education. Providers are diverse, respond to a variety of needs, and often blur the line between the state and non-state sectors. Non-state actors are also important players in the financing of tertiary education through households, market mechanisms and public–private partnerships. As a result, these actors play a significant role in influencing regulations and policymaking, and in shaping the tertiary system as a whole. Governments must ensure quality and equity, the key dimensions of Sustainable Development Goal target 4.3, regardless of how state and non-state actors share responsibilities.



Resource Type: 
Policy and strategy materials
Case studies and research papers
Civic / Citizenship / Democracy
Media and Information Literacy
International understanding / Globalisation / International education / Interdependency
Inclusive / Diversity
Level of education: 
Secondary education
Higher education
Lifelong learning
Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET)
Non-formal education


Global education monitoring report; Educational strategies; Universal education; Global citizenship education; Education for sustainable development; Civic education; ESD; Right to education; SDG4